Monday, September 30, 2019

Should the military age enlistment be raised to 21?

In a high school in Texas, there's a table set up in the corner of the lunch room. Two clean cut men sit behind it, chatting casually about something unimportant. They're trying to get high school students to join the military. But in this particular high school, the students aren't allowed to drink soda or leave the cafeteria for lunch; because they're not capable of making healthy meal choices. So the question here is should the military age enlistment be raised to 21? There are so many speculations about why not should the age be raised. one can be that we would have a much smaller military or a lot of teens who join the military for the benefit for college cannot will afford to go. But the fact is that an 18 year old kid is too immature for many reasons. Recently released studies indicate that our decision making capabilities are not fully developed until we reach our early 20s. That data would indicate that not only would the average teenager be unable to make a wise decision in life but also mean that will be unable to make quality decisions while in the service. Also another hypothesis its, why in to many states, young people under the age of 21 are considered to be too immature to drink alcohol or to vote in this country, but the government can put a deadly weapon into their hands to make a life or death decision. in order to these there are not well educated to make a well informed decision. I’m not saying that something miraculous occurs by the time they turn 21, but that will give them a little more experience to make the right choice. In considering this subject, two phrases come to my mind: Young and dumb and older but wiser. Those two key phrases say a lot about maturity and the human mind. So my conclusion is, the government accepts that an 18 year old is too immature to use alcohol responsibly, to leave school grounds, or to pick a college course without some guidance. But if our culture is willing to accept those as truth, we must also accept that an 18 year old is not mature enough to make a measured decision to go to war-and certainly an 18 year old is not mature enough to engage in that war with a full understanding of what that means.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Darwin and Wallace Island Finch Evolution Lab Experiment

Evolution and Natural Selection have been a recurring focus of biology throughout the years. This Particular experiment is based on Charles Darwin’s observations of finches made in the Galapagos Islands. He noted that different neighboring islands in the Galapagos had distinctly different types of finches. He theorized that this was caused by natural selection, where the environment determined the characteristics of the species in it. In the Evolution Lab Experiment, I looked at how beak size and population numbers for two hypothetical populations of finches on two different islands evolved in response to factors that I manipulated by changing environmental conditions. The specific environmental conditions that I chose to manipulate were the precipitation in the environment and the variance of the finches. However I only manipulated the precipitation and variance on Darwin Island and not on Wallace Island. I thought that if Darwin Island finches had less variance and less precipitation than Wallace Island Finches, that Darwin Island finches would be unable to effectively adapt in order to easily consume the type of seed that was a result of the lesser amount of precipitation. MATERIALS The materials required for me to complete this experiment were my laptop and my University of Phoenix Student Website. Once I accessed the University of Phoenix Student Website, I was able to access the Evolution Lab, which is the final required material. An optional material that I chose to use was a pen and paper to take notes. PROCEDURES In order for me to accurately test my hypothesis, I needed to first get to the Evolution Lab. Once I logged onto my University of Phoenix Student Website, I went to the classroom tab and clicked on Evolution Lab, which is found in week three. Once I pulled up the Evolution Lab window, I chose the button labeled â€Å"Change Inputs†. Once I arrived at the screen with the seven variables on the left and the pictures of the finches on the right, I clicked on the tab labeled â€Å"Variance†. The next step is to change the Darwin Island Finch Variance to 0. 50. I did not change the Wallace Island Finch Variance. After the Variance was set, I clicked on the tab labeled â€Å"Precipitation†. I changed the precipitation on Darwin Island to 10 centimeters and left Wallace Island Precipitation at 20 Centimeters. Since I only changed two variables in an attempt to pinpoint the cause of the results, the next step was to click the tab labeled â€Å"Done†. After I chose whether I wanted to look at the results over 100, 200, or 300 years, I clicked the tab labeled â€Å"Run Experiment†. At this point, I was ready to analyze the results and take notes if I needed to. Lastly, if I needed to extend the time the results were recorded, all I needed to do was click the tab labeled â€Å"Revise Expt. †. Then I clicked the pull down tab and changed the range from 100 to 200 or 300. DATA DISCUSSION As seen in this experiment, when the Variance was lowered along with the Precipitation on Darwin Island, the population was on average, half of that of Wallace Island where the numbers were left in the default status. I made the hypothesis that if I decreased the variance and precipitation on Darwin Island, that the finches there would be less able to adapt their beaks to accommodate the larger size of seeds and would eventually all die off. Since the graphs produced from the Evolution Lab program did not depict the species of finches on Darwin Island falling to zero, my hypothesis did not turn out to be correct. I believe that with the variance lowered to . 5 and not all the way to zero, the finches were still able to evolve, but not as rapidly as the finches on Wallace Island. In addition, since only a small amount of evolution was necessary for the finches on Darwin Island to be able to consume the larger seeds produced from a decreased amount of rain; I believe they could have survived with an even smaller amount of variance. The reason I feel that a smaller amount of variance would have sufficed is that, not only did the finches in my experiment not go extinct, but they only remained below their initial population for the first fifty years after the parameters were put into place. One aspect of the experiment that I feel could be improved upon is the lack of information on how many times a new generation was produced. I was wondering how many times the finches would have to produce offspring in order to observe evolution. I can see that it took the finches on Darwin Island fifty years to regain their initial population of 200, but I would like to know how many times in that fifty years new generations were produced so that I could connect rise in population with a number of generations so that I might be able to predict future evolution. An additional way that the experiment could have been improved would if I had given the Wallace Island finches an increased number of variance and same amount of precipitation. This would have allowed me to not only see what would have happened when the finches had a higher likelihood of evolution to the decreased amount of rain and therefore a solidified cause for the resulting population, but it would have allowed me to analyze the reverse effect and possibly predict trends. CONCLUSION Overall, I tested the effect of lowered variance and lowered precipitation of one population of finches while leaving another population of finches as the control group. I predicted that the finches with the lowered variance and lowered precipitation would become extinct. Even though my hypothesis was rejected at the end of the experiment, I learned that even with an increase in the size of their food as a result of lowered precipitation and a lowered ability to evolve, the finches on Darwin Island rebounded quite quickly.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Intro to The Romantic Period Essay

At the turn of the century, fired by ideas of personal and political liberty and of the energy and sublimity of the natural world, artists and intellectuals sought to break the bonds of 18th-century convention. Although the works of Jean Jacques Rousseau and William Godwin had great influence, the French Revolution and its aftermath had the strongest impact of all. In England initial support for the Revolution was primarily utopian and idealist, and when the French failed to live up to expectations, most English intellectuals renounced the Revolution. However, the romantic vision had taken forms other than political, and these developed apace. In Lyrical Ballads (1798 and 1800), a watershed in literary history, William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge presented and illustrated a beneficial visual: poetry should express, in genuine language, experience as filtered through personal emotion and imagination; the truest experience was to be found in nature. The concept of the Sublime strengthened this turn to nature, because in wild countrysides the power of the sublime could be felt most immediately. Wordsworth’s romanticism is probably most fully realized in his great autobiographical poem, â€Å"The Prelude† (1805–50). In search of sublime moments, romantic poets wrote about the marvelous and supernatural, the exotic, and the medieval. But they also found beauty in the lives of simple rural people and aspects of the everyday world. The second generation of romantic poets included John Keats, Percy Bysshe Shelley, and Lord Byron. In Keats’s great odes, intellectual and emotional sensibility merge in language of great power and beauty. Shelley, who combined soaring lyricism with an apocalyptic political vision, sought more extreme effects and occasionally achieved them, as in his great drama Prometheus Unbound (1820). Lord Byron was the prototypical romantic hero, the envy and scandal of the age. He has been continually identified with his own characters, particularly the rebellious, irreverent, erotically inclined Don Juan. Byron invested the romantic lyric with a rationalist irony. The romantic era was also rich in literary criticism and other nonfictional prose. Coleridge proposed an influential theory of literature in his Biographia Literaria (1817). William Godwin and his wife, Mary Wollstonecraft, wrote ground–breaking books on human, and women’s, rights. William Hazlitt, who never forsook political radicalism, wrote brilliant and astute literary  criticism. The master of the personal essay was Charles Lamb, whereas Thomas De Quincey was master of the personal confession. The periodicals Edinburgh Review and Blackwood’s Magazine, in which leading writers were published throughout the century, were major forums of controversy, political as well as literary. ————————————————- Although the great novelist Jane Austen wrote during the romantic era, her work defies classification. With insight, grace, and irony she delineated human relationships within the context of English country life. Sir Walter Scott, Scottish nationalist and romantic, made the genre of the historical novel widely popular. Other novelists of the period were Maria Edgeworth, Edward Bulwer-Lytton, and Thomas Love Peacock, the latter noted for his eccentric novels satirizing the romantics. The Romantic period The nature of Romanticism As a term to cover the most distinctive writers who flourished in the last years of the 18th century and the first decades of the 19th, â€Å"Romantic† is indispensable but also a little misleading: there was no self-styled â€Å"Romantic movement† at the time, and the great writers of the period did not call themselves Romantics. Not until August Wilhelm von Schlegel’s Vienna lectures of 1808–09 was a clear distinction established between the  Ã¢â‚¬Å"organic,† â€Å"plastic† qualities of Romantic art and the â€Å"mechanical† character of Classicism. Many of the age’s foremost writers thought that something new was happening in the world’s affairs, nevertheless. William Blake’s affirmation in 1793 that â€Å"a new heaven is begun† was matched a generation later by Percy Bysshe Shelley’s â€Å"The world’s great age begins anew.† â€Å"These, these will give the world another heart, / A nd other pulses,† wrote John Keats, referring to Leigh Hunt andWilliam Wordsworth. Fresh ideals came to the fore; in particular, the ideal of freedom, long cherished in England, was being extended to every range of human endeavour. As that ideal swept through Europe, it became natural to believe that the age of tyrants might soon end. The most notable feature of the poetry of the time is the new role of individual thought and personal feeling. Where the main trend of 18th-century poetics had been to praise the general, to see the poet as a spokesman of society addressing a cultivated and homogeneous audience and having as his end the conveyance of â€Å"truth,† the Romantics found the source of poetry in the particular, unique experience. Blake’s marginal comment on Sir Joshua Reynolds’s Discourses expresses the position with characteristic vehemence: â€Å"To Generalize is to be an Idiot. To Particularize is the alone Distinction of Merit.† The poet was seen as an individual distinguished from his fellows by the intensity of his perceptions, taking as his basic subject matter the workings of his own mind. Poetry was regarded as conveying its own truth; sincerity was the criterion by which it was to be judged. The emphasis on feeling—seen perhaps at its finest in the poems of Robert Burns—was in some ways a continuation of the earlier â€Å"cult of sensibility†; and it is worth remembering that Alexander Pope praised his father as having known no language but the language of the heart. But feeling had begun to receive particular emphasis and is found in most of the Romantic definitions of poetry. Wordsworth called poetry â€Å"the spontaneous overflow of powerful feeling,† and in 1833 John Stuart Mill defined poetry as â€Å"feeling itself, employing thought only as the medium of its utterance.† It followed that the best poetry was that in which the greatest intensity of feeling was expressed, and hence a new importance was attached to the lyric. Another key quality of Romantic writing was its shift from the mimetic, or imitative, assumptions of the Neoclassical era to a new stress onimagination. Samuel Taylor Coleridge saw  the imagination as the supre me poetic quality, a quasi-divine creative force that made the poet a godlike being. Samuel Johnson had seen the components of poetry as â€Å"invention, imagination and judgement,† but Blake wrote: â€Å"One Power alone makes a Poet: Imagination, the Divine Vision.† The poets of this period accordingly placed great emphasis on the workings of the unconscious mind, on dreams and reveries, on the supernatural, and on the childlike or primitive view of the world, this last being regarded as valuable because its clarity and intensity had not been overlaid by the restrictions of civilized â€Å"reason.† Rousseau’s sentimental conception of the â€Å"noble savage† was often invoked, and often by those who were ignorant that the phrase is Dryden’s or that the type was adumbrated in the â€Å"poor Indian† of Pope’s An Essay on Man. A further sign of the diminished stress placed on judgment is the Romantic attitude to form: if poetry must be spontaneous, sincere, intense, it should be fashioned primarily according to th e dictates of the creative imagination. Wordsworth advised a young poet, â€Å"You feel strongly; trust to those feelings, and your poem will take its shape and proportions as a tree does from the vital principle that actuates it.† This organic view of poetry is opposed to the classical theory of â€Å"genres,† each with its own linguistic decorum; and it led to the feeling that poetic sublimity was unattainable except in short passages. Hand in hand with the new conception of poetry and the insistence on a new subject matter went a demand for new ways of writing. Wordsworth and his followers, particularly Keats, found the prevailing poetic diction of the late 18th century stale and stilted, or â€Å"gaudy and inane,† and totally unsuited to the expression of their perceptions. It could not be, for them, the language of feeling, and Wordsworth accordingly sought to bring the language of poetry back to that of common speech. Wordsworth’s own diction, however, often differs from his theory. Nevertheless, when he published his preface to Lyrical Ballads in 1800, the time was ripe for a change: the flexible diction of earlier 18th-century poetry had hardened into a merely conventional language. Poetry BLAKE, WORDSWORTH, AND COLERIDGE Useful as it is to trace the common elements in Romantic poetry, there was little conformity among the poets themselves. It is misleading to read the poetry of the first Romantics as if it had been written primarily to express  their feelings. Their concern was rather to change the intellectual climate of the age. William Blake had been dissatisfied since boyhood with the current state of poetry and what he considered the irreligious drabness of contemporary thought. His early development of a protective shield of mocking humour with which to face a world in which science had become trifling and art inconsequential is visible in the satirical An Island in the Moon (written c. 1784–85); he then took the bolder step of setting aside sophistication in the visionary Songs of Innocence (1789). His desire for renewal encouraged him to view the outbreak of the French Revolution as a momentous event. In works such as The Marriage of Heaven and Hell (1790–93) and Songs of Expe rience (1794), he attacked the hypocrisies of the age and the impersonal cruelties resulting from the dominance of analytic reason in contemporary thought. As it became clear that the ideals of the Revolution were not likely to be realized in his time, he renewed his efforts to revise his contemporaries’ view of the universe and to construct a new mythology centred not in the God of the Bible but in Urizen, a repressive figure of reason and law whom he believed to be the deity actually worshipped by his contemporaries. The story of Urizen’s rise was set out in The First Book of Urizen (1794) and then, more ambitiously, in the unfinished manuscript Vala (later redrafted as The Four Zoas), written from about 1796 to about 1807. Blake developed these ideas in the visionary narratives of Milton (1804–08) and Jerusalem (1804–20). Here, still using his own mythological characters, he portrayed the imaginative artist as the hero of society and suggested the possibility of redemption from the fallen (or Urizenic) condition. William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, meanwhile, were also exploring the implication s of the French Revolution. Wordsworth, who lived in France in 1791–92 and fathered an illegitimate child there, was distressed when, soon after his return, Britain declared war on the republic, dividing his allegiance. For the rest of his career, he was to brood on those events, trying to develop a view of humanity that would be faithful to his twin sense of the pathos of individual human fates and the unrealized potentialities in humanity as a whole. The first factor emerges in his early manuscript poems â€Å"The Ruined Cottage† and â€Å"The Pedlar† (both to form part of the later Excursion); the second was developed from 1797, when he and his sister, Dorothy, with whom he was living in the west  of England, were in close contact with Coleridge. Stirred simultaneously by Dorothy’s immediacy of feeling, manifested everywhere in her Journals (written 1798–1803, published 1897), and by Coleridge’s imaginative and speculative genius, he produced the poems collected in Lyrical Ballads(1798). The volume began with Coleridge’s â€Å"The Rime of the Ancient Mariner,† continued with poems displaying delight in the powers of nature and the humane instincts of ordinary people, and concluded with the meditative â€Å"Lines Written a Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey,† Wordsworth’s attempt to set out his mature faith in nature and humanity. His investigation of the relationship between nature and the human mind continued in the long autobiographical poem addressed to Coleridge and later titled The Prelude (1798–99 in two books; 1804 in five books; 1805 in 13 books; revised continuously and published posthumously, 1850). Here he traced the value for a poet of having been a child â€Å"fostered alike by beauty and by fear† by an upbringing in sublime surroundings. The Prelude constitutes the most significant English expression of the Romantic discovery of the self as a topic for art and literature. The poem also makes much of the work of memory, a theme explored as well in the â€Å"Ode: Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood.† In poems such as â€Å"Michael† and â€Å"The Brothers,† by contrast, written for the second volume of Lyrical Ballads (1800), Wordsworth dwelt on the pathos and potentialities of ordinary lives. Coleridge’s poetic development during these years paralleled Wordsworth’s. Having briefly brought together images of nature and the mind in â€Å"The Eolian Harp† (1796), he devoted himself to more-public concerns in poems of political and social prophecy, such as â€Å"Religious Musings† and â€Å"The Destiny of Nations.† Becoming disillusioned in 1798 with his earlier politics, however, and encouraged by Wordsworth, he turned back to the relatio nship between nature and the human mind. Poems such as â€Å"This Lime-Tree Bower My Prison,† â€Å"The Nightingale,† and â€Å"Frost at Midnight† (now sometimes called the â€Å"conversation poems† but collected by Coleridge himself as â€Å"Meditative Poems in Blank Verse†) combine sensitive descriptions of nature with subtlety of psychological comment. â€Å"Kubla Khan† (1797 or 1798, published 1816), a poem that Coleridge said came to him in â€Å"a kind of Reverie,† represented a new kind of exotic writing, which he also exploited in the supernaturalism of â€Å"The Ancient Mariner† and the unfinished  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Christabel.† After his visit to Germany in 1798–99, he renewed attention to the links between the subtler forces in nature and the human psyche; this attention bore fruit in letters, notebooks, literary criticism, theology, and philosophy. Simultaneously, his poetic output became sporadic. â€Å"Dejection: An Ode† (1802), another meditat ive poem, which first took shape as a verse letter to Sara Hutchinson, Wordsworth’s sister-in-law, memorably describes the suspension of his â€Å"shaping spirit of Imagination.† The work of both poets was directed back to national affairs during these years by the rise ofNapoleon. In 1802 Wordsworth dedicated a number of sonnets to the patriotic cause. The death in 1805 of his brother John, who was a captain in the merchant navy, was a grim reminder that, while he had been living in retirement as a poet, others had been willing to sacrifice themselves. From this time the theme of duty was to be prominent in his poetry. His political essay Concerning the Relations of Great Britain, Spain and Portugal†¦as Affected by the Convention of Cintra (1809) agreed with Coleridge’s periodical The Friend (1809–10) in deploring the decline of principle among statesmen. When The Excursion appeared in 1814 (the time of Napoleon’s first exile), Wordsworth announced the poem as the central section of a longer projected work, The Recluse, â€Å"a philosophical Poem, containing views of Man, Nature, and Society.† The plan was not fulfilled, however, and The Excursion was left to stand in its own right as a poem of moral and religious consolation for those who had been disappointed by the failure of French revolutionary ideals. Both Wordsworth and Coleridge benefited from the advent in 1811 of the Regency, which brought a renewed interest in the arts. Coleridge’s lectures on Shakespeare became fashionable, his playRemorse was briefly produced, and his volume of poems Christabel; Kubla Khan: A Vision; The Pains of Sleep was published in 1816. Biographia Literaria (1817), an account of his own development, combined philosophy and literary criticism in a new way and made an enduring and important contribution to literary theory. Coleridge settled at Highgate in 1816, and he was sought there as â€Å"the most impressive talker of his age† (in the words of the essayist William Hazlitt). His later religious writings made a considerable impact on Victorian readers. No other period in English literature displays more variety in style, theme, and content than the Romantic Movement of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Furthermore, no period has been the topic of so much disagreement and confusion over its defining principles and aesthetics. Romanticism, then, can best be described as a large network of sometimes competing philosophies, agendas, and points of interest. In England, Romanticism had its greatest influence from the end of the eighteenth century up through about 1870. Its primary vehicle of expression was in poetry, although novelists adopted many of the same themes. In America, the Romantic Movement was slightly delayed and modulated, holding sway over arts and letters from roughly 1830 up to the Civil War. Contrary to the English example, American literature championed the novel as the most fitting genre for Romanticism’s exposition. In a broader sense, Romanticism can be conceived as an adjective which is applicable to the literature of virtually any time period. With that in mind, anything from the Homeric epics to modern dime novels can be said to bear the stamp of Romanticism. In spite of such general disagreements over usage, there are some definitive and universal statements one can make regarding the nature of the Romantic Movement in both England and America. First and foremost, Romanticism is concerned with the individual more than with society. The individual consciousness and especially the individual imagination are especially fascinating for the Romantics. â€Å"Melancholy† was quite the buzzword for the Romantic poets, and altered states of consciousness were often sought after in order to enhance one’s creative potential. There was a coincident downgrading of the importance and power of reason, clearly a reaction against the Enlightenment mode of thinking. Nevertheless, writers became gradually more invested in social causes as the period moved forward. Thanks largely to the Industrial Revolution, English society was undergoing the most severe paradigm shifts it had seen in living memory. The response of many early Romantics was to yearn for an idealized, simpler past. In particular, English Romantic poets had a strong connection with medievalism and mythology. The tales of King Arthur were especially resonant to their imaginations. On top of this, there was a clearly mystical quality to Romantic writing that sets it apart from other literary periods. Of course, not every Romantic poet or novelist displayed all, or even most of these traits all the time. On the formal  level, Romanticism witnessed a steady loosening of the rules of artistic expression that were pervasive during earlier times. The Neoclassical Period of the eighteenth century included very strict expectations regarding the structure and content of poetry. By the dawn of the nineteenth century, experimentation with new styles and subjects became much more acceptable. The high-flown language of the previous generation’s poets was replaced with more natural cadences and verbiage. In terms of poetic form, rhymed stanzas were slowly giving way to blank verse, an unrhymed but still rhythmic style of poetry. The purpose of blank verse was to heighten conversational speech to the level of austere beauty. Some criticized the new style as mundane, yet the innovation soon became the preferred style. One of the most popular themes of Romantic poetry was country life, otherwise known as pastoral poetry. Mythological and fantastic settings were also employed to great effect by many of the Romantic poets. Though struggling and unknown for the bulk of his life, poet and artist William Blake was certainly one of the most creative minds of his generation. He was well ahead of his time, predating the high point of English Romanticism by several decades. His greatest work was composed during the 1790s, in the shadow of the French Revolution, and that confrontation informed much of his creative process. Throughout his artistic career, Blake gradually built up a sort of personal mythology of creation and imagination. The Old and New Testaments were his source material, but his own sensibilities transfigured the Biblical stories and led to something entirely original and completely misunderstood by contemporaries. He attempted to woo patrons to his side, yet his unstable temper made him rather difficult to work with professionally. Some considered him mad. In addition to writing poetry of the first order, Blake was also a master engraver. His greatest contributions to Romantic literature were his self-published, quasi-mythological illustrated poetry collections. Gloriously colored and painstaking in their design, few of these were produced and fewer still survive to the present day. However, the craft and genius behind a work like The Marriage of Heaven and Hell cannot be ignored. If one could identify a single voice as the standard-bearer of Romantic sensibilities, that voice would belong to William Wordsworth. His publication of Lyrical Ballads in 1798 is identified by many as the opening act of the Romantic Period in English literature. It was a hugely successful  work, requiring several reprinting over the years. The dominant theme of Lyrical Ballads was Nature, specifically the power of Nature to create strong impressions in the mind and imagination. The voice in Wordsworth’s poetry is observant, meditative and aware of the connection between living things and objects. There is the sense that past, present, and future all mix together in the human consciousness. One feels as though the poet and the landscape are in communion, each a partner in an act of creative production. Wordsworth quite deliberately turned his back on the Enlightenment traditions of poetry, specifically the work of Alexander Pope. He instead looked more to the Renaissance and the Classics of Greek and Latin epic poetry for inspiration. His work was noted for its accessibility. The undeniable commercial success of LyricalBallads does not diminish the profound effect it had on an entire generation of aspiring writers. In the United State, Romanticism found its voice in the poets and novelists of the American Renaissance. The beginnings of American Romanticism went back to the New England Transcendental Movement. The concentration on the individual mind gradually shifted from an optimistic brand of spiritualism into a more modern, cynical study of the underside of humanity. The political unrest in mid-nineteenth century America undoubtedly played a role in the development of a darker aesthetic. At the same time, strongly individualist religious traditions played a large part in the development of artistic creations. The Protestant work ethic, along with the popularity and fervor of American religious leaders, fed a literary output that was undergird with fire and brimstone. The middle of the nineteenth century has only in retrospect earned the label of the American Renaissance in literature. No one alive in the 1850s quite realized the flowering of creativity that was underway. In fact, the novelists who today are regarded as classic were virtually unknown during their lifetimes. The novelists working during this period, particularly Nathaniel Hawthorne and Herman Melville, were crafting dens ely symbolic and original pieces of literature that nonetheless relied heavily upon the example of English Romanticism. However, there work was in other respects a clean break with any permutation of Romanticism that had come before. There was a darkness to American Romanticism that was clearly distinct from the English examples of earlier in the century. Herman Melville died penniless and unknown, a failed writer who recognized his own  brilliance even when others did not. It would take the Modernists and their reappraisal of American arts and letters to resuscitate Melville’s literary corpus. In novels like Benito Cereno and Moby Dick, Melville employed a dense fabric of hinted meanings and symbols that required close reading and patience. Being well-read himself, Melville’s writing betrays a deep understanding of history, mythology, and religion. With Moby Dick, Melville displays his research acumen, as in the course of the novel the reader learns more than they thought possible about whales and whaling. The novel itself is dark, mysterious, and hints at the supernatural. Superficia lly, the novel is a revenge tale, but over and above the narrative are meditations of madness, power, and the nature of being human. Interestingly, the narrator in the first few chapters of the novel more or less disappears for most of the book. He is in a sense swallowed up by the mania of Captain Ahab and the crew. Although the novel most certainly held sway, poetry was not utterly silent during the flowering of American Romanticism. Arguably the greatest poet in American literary history was Walt Whitman, and he took his inspiration from many of the same sources as his fellows working in the novel. His publication of Leaves of Grass in 1855 marked a critical moment in the history of poetry. Whitman’s voice in his poetry was infused with the spirit of democracy. He attempted to include all people in all corners of the Earth within the sweep of his poetic vision. Like Blake, Whitman’s brand of poetics was cosmological and entirely unlike anything else being produced at the time. Like the rest of the poets in the Romantic tradition, Whitman coined new words, and brought a diction and rhythmic style t o verse that ran counter to the aesthetics of the last century. Walt Whitman got his start as a writer in journalism, and that documentary style of seeing the world permeated all his creative endeavors. In somewhat of a counterpoint to Whitman’s democratic optimism stands Edgar Allen Poe, today recognized as the most purely Romantic poet and short story writer of his generation. Poe crafted fiction and poetry that explored the strange side of human nature. The English Romantics had a fascination with the grotesque and of â€Å"strange† beauty, and Poe adopted this aesthetic perspective willingly. His sing-song rhythms and dreary settings earned him criticism on multiple fronts, but his creativity earned him a place in the first rank of American artists. He is credited as the inventor of detective fiction, and was likewise one of the  original masters of horror. A sometimes overlooked contribution, Poe’s theories on literature are often required reading for students of the art form. The master of symbolism in American litera ture was Nathaniel Hawthorne. Each of his novels represents worlds imbued with the power of suggestion and imagination. The Scarlet Letter is often placed alongside Moby Dick as one of the greatest novels in the English language. Not a single word is out of place, and the dense symbolism opens the work up to multiple interpretations. There are discussions of guilt, family, honor, politics, and society. There is also Hawthorne’s deep sense of history. Modern readers often believe that The Scarlet Letter was written during the age of the Puritans, but in fact Hawthorne wrote a story that was in the distant past even in his own time. Another trademark of the novel is its dabbling in the supernatural, even the grotesque. One gets the sense, for example, that maybe something is not quite right with Hester’s daughter Pearl. Nothing is what it appears to be in The Scarlet Letter, and that is the essence of Hawthorne’s particular Romanticism. Separate from his literary production, Hawthorne wrote expansively on literary theory and criticism. His theories exemplify the Romantic spirit in American letters at mid-century. He espoused the conviction that objects can hold significance deeper than their apparent meaning, and that the symbolic nature of reality was the most fertile ground for literature. In his short stories especially, Hawthorne explored the complex system of meanings and sensations that shift in and out of a person’s consciousness. Throughout his writings, one gets a sense of darkness, if not outright pessimism. There is the sense of not fully understanding the world, of not getting the entire picture no matter how hard one tries. In a story like â€Å"Young Goodman Brown,† neither the reader nor the protagonist can distinguish reality from fantasy with any sureness. As has been argued, Romanticism as a literary sensibility never completely disappeared. It was overtaken by other aesthetic paradigms like Realism and Modernism, but Romanticism was always lurking under the surface. Many great poets and novelists of the twentieth century cite the Romantics as their greatest inspirational voices. The primary reason that Romanticism fell out of the limelight is because many writers felt the need to express themselves in a more immediate way. The Romantic poets were regarded as innovators, but a bit lost in their own imaginations. The real problems of  life in the world seemed to be pushed aside. As modernization continued unchecked, a more earthy kind of literature was demanded, and the Romantics simply did not fit that bill.

Friday, September 27, 2019

MEDIA TECHNOLOGIES Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

MEDIA TECHNOLOGIES - Essay Example As per Carlyle (1830), development of printing press was the first step towards the modern era of media. McLuhan has introduced the term â€Å"Media† along with other terms like â€Å"The Global Village† and the â€Å"Age of Information† which gained high popularity. In 1965 his famous book â€Å"Understanding Media: The Extension of Man† was published. Soon he was called the most important thinker after Newton, Darwin, Pavlov and few more. With the further development in technology, media has made constant evolution and has improved itself to fit best into the society. McLuhan has called media as an extension of man. (Griscom, n.d. â€Å"McLuhan’s message†). The chart given above indicates that with passage of time, some vital changes took place in the media industry. These changes are more influenced by the changes that are taking place in the field of technology and also in the society. One of such revolutionary change was brought by the development of the internet. Internet introduced speed in media. The present era of media is known as digital media due to influence of internet in each and every aspect. In the year 1964, Rand Corporation, created a communication network which had several nodes and each node was capable of originating, passing and receiving message. In 1967 Britains National Physical Laboratory succeeded in developing the first test network. This was just the beginning of a new era. With passage of time, more and more such networks came into existence. Many agencies came forward and actively participated in developing their own network. By the end of the 20th century, six basic internet domains developed. These domains got segregated by separate abbreviations for representing their address such as â€Å"gov†, which was for government; â€Å"mil†, which was for military; â€Å"edu†, which was for education; â€Å"com†, which was for commercial; â€Å"org†, which was for organisation and

Thursday, September 26, 2019

History 1118 United States History and Culture Term Paper

History 1118 United States History and Culture - Term Paper Example Here, the law allows for two senators for each state in the United States. In addition, the minimum term allowed by law to all senates is six years, with each senate having one vote. This part of the US constitution also has a provision that the senators will be elected into office by the specific legislatures of the state in which they seek rulership. Nonetheless, the 17 amendment has the same provisions like those in the article one, section three, except one difference with regard to the method of election for the senators. Therefore, while the number of senators, number of votes, and term of office is similar in both cases, the 17th amendment considers popular vote or electors as the main method of election of senators. In addition, the 17th amendment included that each senator seeking office must meet certain qualifications, including specific age and residency qualifications (Gailmard 324). Nonetheless, this amendment is responsible for various changes in the United States. Bef ore the 17th amendment, the constitution of the United States had specified that only the legislatures of a senate would elect a senator. Therefore, the American citizens did not participate in the election of their senators. However, beginning the mid 1850’s this election system of senators by the government began to raise concerns among the American citizens, who felt they were being excluded from this important practice. Meanwhile, in 1866, in order to control this election approach, the US Congress passed a law, which was considered the main influence of the 17th amendment. However, this law did not change the election method of senators, thus was less useful, as most people wanted to be involved in voting in their senators. In the year 1893, the proposal for constitutional amendment in favour of direct elections of senators was first made. However, for a long time, this was not implemented, despite it being proposed every year. In 1903, this proposal was made in the US C ongress, but the senate rejected it. However, in May 1912, the Congress passed direct elections of senators as the 17th amendment, and had it ratified in April 1913. Apart from allowing for direct elections of senators, it also allowed for a way of replacing senators, when the senate seat became vacant before the end of a term (Gailmard 324). As seen the government of the United States only allowed the legislatures in a state to elect the senator of their state. Various parties, including the founding fathers who wrote the constitution, as well as President James Madison, influenced this decision. In 1787, various delegates from different states were invited to Philadelphia to attend the Constitutional Convention meant to improve various confederation articles. James Madison attended and kept he took notes during the convention. From Madison’s notes, it is possible to understand the main reasons why the founding fathers, who created the US constitution, were opposed to a Cong ress made up of a single house, thus, supporting the senate. In addition, one might understand why the founding fathers were of the opinion that state legislatures, and not the majority, elect senators. Nonetheless, deciding that state legislatures appoint senators was in a bid to prevent or avoid the election of unethical or incompetent individuals into the senate. The founding fathers

Managing Creativity and Change in Organizations Essay

Managing Creativity and Change in Organizations - Essay Example The organizations with the right ideas and concepts are more likely to create an advantage for penetrating in an industry. In line with this idea, the work at hand discusses the statement â€Å"In the future, hierarchical management structures will be less evident. The management of intellectual capital will require skills that nurture creativity and innovation in workforce rather than compliance as in the past.† To start with this, a good starting point will be to consider the case of Apple Incorporated and how it deals with creativity, innovation and manage its intellectual capital. The case of Apple Incorporated as an example The case of Apple Incorporated is sheer evidence that hierarchical management structures will be less evident in the future. Instead, nurturing creativity and innovation in the workforce will be a must rather than doing a requirement of compliance for hierarchical management. What Apple exactly did is a depiction of innovation, a significant change tha t opens the door for more innovative business approach in the future. Apple Incorporated has primarily dealt more with specialisation, leading to the progress of its product offerings in terms of technological advancement. However, what is clear in its case is the ability to promote creativity and innovation concerning the skills of the manpower to develop something new. At Apple Incorporated, it does not matter who the boss is, for as long as everybody has something new innovative to offer that is in line with the firm’s vision to go for change and lead in the industry. Aside from the fact that Apple has been producing new innovative products in the market and has become the leader in its industry due to this approach, it has also successfully made an innovation in its business model, and together these have called for effective management of skills prior to creativity and innovation. In other words, the company’s business culture is more of a deviation from the tradi tional business model. The old traditional model of hierarchical management Hierarchical management is the old way of conducting or doing business. It is survived by the ability of the entire workforce to adhere to bureaucracy and maintain the harmonious implementation of the chain of command (Farrel, 2011). This adheres to the authority of the higher-ranking officials and their tendency to implement anything that will go for the act of subordination. This means that a certain component or department in an organisation, except one, is subordinate to the other (Zhou et al., 2011). There must be evidence of hierarchy especially in the organisational structure. There is an inclusion of different levels of management, power and authority within the hierarchy and this is what commonly applies to majority of corporations, government and religious groups today. However, it is important to understand the remarkable implication of this structural model in an organisation. It is good to under stand that a hierarchical management structure may limit the creativity and innovation capacity of a certain department or the human resource (Daft and Marcic, 2011), because the entire workfo

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Social Responsibility Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Social Responsibility - Research Paper Example sibility is very vital in the creation of wealth by a company in that if managed properly it can improve the competitiveness of the business and maximize the value of creation of wealth to the community. With the growing public awareness and desire for socially responsible businesses, it is significant to note that companies consider planning for future socially responsible business operation. Customers expect organizations to operate in a social responsible and moral way. Many Organizations have developed code of conduct that guide the behavior of their employees. Therefore, they have to work with customers to produce quality products that are in line with the customer’s desires and expectations. Further, organizations have to offer customers free access to data concerning their operation. Social responsibility and code of conduct are created with the recognition that every activity that a company do is connected with their work (Paine, 2008). Organizations should ensure that whatever activity they do, does not contravene the interest of the society. It is significant for organizations to accept whistleblowers because it helps in unearthing wrongdoing. Further, if organizations fail to accept internal whistleblowers, much damage can be done to the organization. Therefore, organizations should develop programs that allow employees to talk about illegal and unethical issues thus making organizations more socially responsible to the actions. Whistleblowers are advocates of the society since they make the organizations accountable in everything they do. Corporate philanthropy makes businesses more responsible by giving back to the society. It helps in raising awareness to the society about the company’s desire to help the society. Philanthropic activities make organizations help those in need. Social responsibility benefits both the employees and the company, since it broadens their experience and assists them in creating new ideas and skills via philanthropic

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Family Influences in Child Development Research Paper

Family Influences in Child Development - Research Paper Example It is evidently clear from the discussion that in order for children to develop balanced emotional health, families must be able to provide them with the right balance of discipline and love. Through the right balance of firmness and gentleness in parenting, a child is able to gain a positive attitude and is able to take better control of his life when he reaches adulthood. In my first interaction with my respondent, I noticed that despite his young age, he was pretty confident in answering my questions. In fact, he was more engaged than I expected. He warmed up with me fast enough, I think. He was friendly and confident, and I remembered at least one time when I thought, â€Å"Am I really talking to a 15-year old?† He sounded so much older and it felt that he was much older than he looked. These observations were pretty important to me because it indicated how well this child was developing. I wanted to know the social and interpersonal skills of my respondent before I starte d asking about how he was raised by his family. One thing to note about this respondent is that he was the youngest person in the family, his siblings were years older than him. It is perhaps because of the huge gap in their age that he does not typically get into conflict with his siblings. According to the respondent, his sisters usually give in during the conflict, or they bargain with him instead of arguing. The more mature siblings try to understand the younger brother because, well, he is younger and is immature. How the siblings were disciplined by the parents remain a mystery for my respondent, and I tend to think that this is because the parents have a different way of correcting the older children’s behavior. In the latter part of the interview, my respondent said that his parents never scold him in public, so it is very possible that his siblings are also reprimanded in private.

Monday, September 23, 2019

United Colors of Benetton Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

United Colors of Benetton - Case Study Example These are special skills on product design and manufacturing procedures related to cutting and dying. Still, their networking or outsourcing activities remain in the confines of their territory in Italy. Contrary to the prevailing business models in their industry at the given period, even their retail shops are outsourced in the form of informal licensing. By informal it means that most of their transactions whether in manufacturing or retailing are based on handshakes mostly with no written or formal agreements. Conversely, their major competitors Gap and Zara own and control their retail shops. It is estimated that about 85% of business operations are outsourced. Their vast networking strategy paved the way for their tremendous growth not only in Italy but in other countries as well. These licensees played a significant role through financing other aspects of Benetton operations hence allowing the latter to focus their hard work and resources to their core competencies. The embodiment of its strategic outsourcing initiative is evidently shown in its five-stage process for its international expansion. The gauge of their successful expansion must result to buy out of their licensee or subsidiary and integrating it under Benetton management.

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Magna Carta for Students Essay Example for Free

Magna Carta for Students Essay EXPLANATORY NOTE One of the biggest foundations of a progressive nation is an educated population. Development in the different areas of knowledge such a science and technology, business, medicine, social science and others have brought about drastic advancement in our present society. In an increasingly demanding and dynamic global economy, competitiveness, more than an advantage, is a must. As expressed in the Philippine Constitution, education is one of the priorities of the State. Aside from the basic needs such as food, shelter and clothing, it is one of the primary necessities that the State should provide for its constituents. While the private sector is an active participant in the promotion of education at present, the governrnent should still lead in ensuring its quality and accessibility. It should be recognized that the full development of the students is not dependent merely on books and lectures. Aside from providing them with an environment conductive to learning, it is the duty of the State to ensure the quality of education that goes beyond the corners of the classroom; for indeed the true lessons in life are gained in the real world. However, the present formal educational system has, in one way or another, deprived the students of the chance to develop their full potential. This Magna Carta for Students intends to equalize the chance of the students to admission in school and to avail of competent and quality education. It seeks to provide measures to ensure that the students are able to exercise their rights to organize, right to participate in policy-making, right to academic freedom, and right to free expression and information. For these reasons, the passage of this bill is earnestly sought. Senator FIFTEENTH CONGRESS OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES First Regular Session ) ) ) HI SENATE Senate Bill No. JUl. -8 A9 :(). :i 911 INTRODUCED BY SEN. JINGGOY EJERCITO ESTRADA AN ACT PROVIDING FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE MAGNA CARTA OF STUDENTS Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled: SECTION 1. Students. Title. This Act shall be known as the Magna Carta of CHAPTER I GENERAL PRINCIPLES SEC. 2. Declaration of Policy. It is hereby declared to be the policy of the State to promote and protect the rights of students to enable them to participate actively and effectively in the democratic processes of effective progressive and developmental changes in society. SEC. 3. Guiding Principles. This Act declares the following as basic guiding principles: (a) The formal educational system being the principal institutional mechanism for imparting knowledge and developing skills is given priority attention and support by the govemment. Education is a right and not a mere privilege. It is therefore the responsibility of the State to provide quality education accessible at all curriculum levels. Student organizations enhance democratic processes on the campus. Membership and active which promote and protect students rights and welfare and\or contribute to national development shall be guaranteed by the State and school authorities. Student organizations shall not be subject to rules and regulations that unduly hamper their activities and are prejudicial to their objectives and interests, provided such objectives, activities and interests are with the schools mission. Student councils\governments being the most representative of the studentry and the highest expression of student power on campus shall be consulted in the formulation of school policies directly affecting students. (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) . (g) Student publication shall serve as a principal, medium for free and responsible expression, dissemination of information, and interaction, among the different sectors of the academic community . With their democratic rights guaranteed, students can serve as a potent and cogent force in the countrys social transformation. SEC. 4. Definition of Terms. As used in this Act, the following terms shall mean: (a) Student any person enrolled in school in post secondary, tertiary, graduate and post graduate levels, including vocational and technical education. School any private, public or government-run and funded academic educational institution offering any or all courses in the above-mentioned levels. School campus the totality of all contiguous or proximate buildings, grounds and other facilities designed by the school as areas or facilities for the use of its students. Governing Board the highest policy making body of the school such as: Board of Directors, Trustees or Regents. Student Council/Government the body representing the whole student population in one school or school campus whose officers are annually elected at large by the whole student population pursuant to its constitution and by-laws, if any. Council of Leaders the body composed of the heads of various stUdent organizations chaired by the President/Chairman of the Student Council. Tuition Fee The fee representing direct costs of instructions, training and other related activities, and the use of school facilities. The term other school fees refers to fees which cover other necessary costs supportive of instruction, including but not limited to medical and dental, athletic, library, laboratory, and Citizen Army Training (CAT) or Citizen Military Training (CMT) fees. CHAPTER II RIGHT TO ADMISSION AND QUALITY EDUCATION SEC. 5. Admission. . (a) No student shall be denied admission to any school on account of his/her physical handicap, socio-economic status, political or religious beliefs, or shall pregnant students and certified reformed drug abusers be discriminated against. A student shall have the right to freely choose his/her field of study subject to existing curricula and the instituti. ons admissions policies and to continue his/her course up to graduation except in case of academic deficiency, inability to meet program requirement, or violation of disciplinary regulations which do not infringe upon the exercise of students rights. (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (b) SEC. 6. Rights to Competent Instruction and Relevant Quality Education. Every student shall have the right to competent instruction and quality education to relevant to his/her personal and cultural development and  that of the nation, and commensurate to the school fees paid, and for state institutions, public subsidies granted. Students shall have the right to make a written evaluation of the performance of their teachers toward the end of the school term. SEC. 7. Right to Adequate Student Services and Academic Facilities. It shall be the responsibility of the school administration to provide the students with adequate student services and academic facilities commensurate to the school fees paid, and for SCUs, public subsidies granted. CHAPTER III RIGHT TO ORGANIZE SEC. 8. Right to Organize among Themselves. Unity and collective effort being fundamental to the realization of common goal and the promotion and protection of common interest, the State recognizes the right of student to organize among themselves . . The rights of student to form, assist, or join any campus organization, alliance or federation, not contrary to the school mission, for their physical, intellectual, moral, cultural, spiritual and political interest shall not be abridged. SEC. 9. Student Council/Government. The State shall ensure the democratic and autonomous existence of student councils/governments. Pursuant thereto, there shall be one student council/government for each school campus, which shall be given recognition by the school, colleges and universities concerned. It shall have its own. set of officers elected in annual popular elections. Every student council/government shall have the right to determine its policies and program on student activities subject to this duly ratified charter or constitution, school rules and regulation, and state policy. SEC. 10. Recognition of and Granting of privileges to Student Organizations. No unreasonable requirements shall be imposed on student organizations seeking recognition. The guidelines concerning recognition shall be formulated by the Student Affairs Office in consultation with the student council. The process for seeking recognition shall begin upon the submission to the Student Affairs Office by the organization concerned on its (1) concept paper and constitution; and (2) a formal letter addressed to the Student Affairs stating that the organizations intent to be recognized. Recognition will be granted by the Students affairs Office upon compliance with the guidelines. There shall be no discrimination in the assignment of school facilities and granting of other privileges to student organizations. Excessive charges for the use of school facilities shall be prohibited. Whenever possible the school administration shall allow stud~nt organizations to use school facilities free of charge. SEC. 11. Coordination of Student Organizations Activities. All on and off campus activities of student organization shall be coordinated by the student council/government in consultation with the Student affairs office. The Committee on Elections (COMELEC) constituted to conduct the election of the officers of the student council/government shall be composed solely of bona fide student of the school. The conduct of the student council election shall be held in coordination with the Student Affairs Office. SEC. 12. Prohibition against the Use of Force and Exaction and Excessive. All campus organization shall be prohibited from using force in initiation and from exacting excessive fees from their members, as well as in their other students activities. CHAPTER IV RIGHT TO PARTICIPATE IN POLICY MAKING SEC. 13. Representation in policy-making process. The student shall be represented in policy-making bodies (other than the governing board) which directly affect their welfare, especially in curriculum review, student discipline and academic standards. The representatives shall be designed by the student council. SEC. 14. Student Initiative and Referendum. The student council/government through a majority vote of all the members of the student body shall have the right to initiate the formulation, modification or rejection of a school policy affecting the students. The proposition for the formulation, modification or rejection of a school policy affecting the students shall be submitted to and approved by a majority of votes casts by all bona fide students of the school in an areas shall be excluded from the power of students on initiative or referendum: (a) admission; (b) curriculum; gc) faculty recruitment and tenure; (d) rules on student conduct and discipline; (e) tuition fees; and (f) scholastic rules (e. g.academic credits and retention and graduation of students). CHAPTER V RIGHT TO FREE EXPRESSION AND INFORMATION AND RIGHT TO ACADEMIC FREEDOM , SEC. 15. Right to be Informed. The right of the student to be given information upon request on matters directly affecting their welfare shall be recog ·nized. SEC. 16. Freedom of Expression. Subject to existing laws and school rules and regulations, students shall have the right to freely express their view and opinions. SEC. 17. Academic Freedom. Students academic freedom shall subject to school rules and regulations and the exercise by the school and members of the faculty of their respective academic freedom, consist of, but is not limited to, the following rights: (a) To conduct research in connection with academic work, and to freely discuss and publish their findings and recommendations; (b) To conduct inquiry in curricular and extracurricular activities within the campus and in appropriate circumstances; (c) To choose a field of study for research and to pursue the quest for truth; to express their opinion on any subject of public or general concern which directly or indirectly affects the students of the educational system; (d) To invite off-campus speakers or resource persons to student sponsored assemblies, fora, symposia, and other activities of similar nature; (e) To express contrary interpretation or dissenting opinions inside and outside the classroom; (f) To participate in the drafting of a new curriculum and in the review or revision of the old; and (g) To participate in the drafting and/or revising of the student handbook which shall include the school rules and regulations, a copy of which shall be furnished the students upon admission to the school. , CHAPTER VI . RIGHT TO DUE PROCESS IN DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS . SEC. 18. Right to Due Process. (a) (b) A student subject tot disciplinary proceedings shall have the right to defend himself/herself, to be heard and to present evidence on his/her behalf before an impartial body. There shall be a Student Disciplinary Board to be composed of two (2) representatives form the school administration, one (1) faculty member, and two (2) students to conduct investigations into and decide on cases student violation of disciplinary standards. The blacklisting, expulsion, suspension and other such disciplinary sanctions that may be taken against a student shall not be valid unless the following rights have been observed: (1) the right to be informed in writing of the nature and cause of the accusations against his/her; (2) the right to confront witnesses against him/her and to have full access to the evidence on the case; (3) the right to defend himself/herself and to be defended by a represented or counsel of his/her choice, adequate time being given for the preparation of a defense; (4) the right to a hearing before the student Disciplinary Board; (5) the right against self incrimination; and (6) the right to appeal adverse decisions of the Student Disciplinary Board to the governing board and ultimately to the appropriate education agencies. (c) The decision in any disciplinary proceeding must be rendered in the basis of relevant and sUbstantial evidence presented at the hearing, or at least contained in the record and disclosed to the student affected. The deciding body must act on its own independent consideration of the facts of the case. The body should, in all controversial questions, render its decision in such a manner that the issues involved, and the reasons for any decision made are clear to the student. (d) Disciplinary sanctions shall be corrective rather publish on a periodic basis acts which are deem violate or school rules and regulations and the corresponding disciplinary sanctions do not violate the rights guaranteed herein and under the Constitution. CHAPTER VII OTHER RIGHTS SEC. 19. Right Against Unreasonable Searches and Seizures. Every student shall be free from any form of unreasonable search and seizure. Except for the following instances no search or seizure of a student shall be deemed valid: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Searches made at the point of ingress and egress by authorized personnel of the school. Searches and seizures of illegal article or articles falling in the plain view of duly authorized personnel; Searches and seizures of articles that are illegal, discovered inadvertently by duly authorized personnel; Searches made when the student is about to commit, is committing or has just committed a crime or a serious infraction of the schools rules and regulations; Searches made with a valid search warrant. Articles seized in violation of the here above mentioned provided rights shall not be used as evidence against the student in any disciplinary action that may be brought against him/her. SEC. 20. Access to School Records and Issuance of Official Certificates. Subject to the provision of the following section, every student shall have access to her/him own school record, the confidentiality of which the school shall  ·maintain. He/she shall have the right to be issued official certificates, diplomas, transcript of records, grades, transfer credentials and other similar documents within thirty (30) days from the filing of request and accomplishment of all pertinent requirements. SEC. 21. Unpaid Tuition Fees and Examination. No student shall be prohibited from taking a periodic or final examination because of unpaid tuition and other fees under the established terms of payment prescribed by the school concemed and approved by the appropriate education agency. Students with delinquent fees permitted to take an examination shall nevertheless be subject to the right of the school concerned to withhold the release or issuance of such students school records or of the documents mentioned in the preceding section or to deny such students admission at the next succeeding term or year until the prior delinquencies are fully paid.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Social Gradient In Health Health And Social Care Essay

Social Gradient In Health Health And Social Care Essay The current world is explicitly divided into developed world characterized by having ultra-modern technological advancement, most efficient communication system, better health care and income opportunities and under developed region with completely opposite scenarios. This huge inequality among the countries depicted in huge differences in health and wellbeing of the populations.. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there is a 36 years variation between the life expectancy among the countries. The life expectancy of Malawi is only 47 years while in case of Japan it is 83 years. WHO has declared that there is no biological or genetic reason for [the] alarming differences in health and life opportunity. The unequal scenario of health status, however, not only persists between countries, but also evident within countries, and surprisingly almost all countries irrespective of rich or poor. There is a distinct differentiation in the health status among people of different so cio-economic status (SES). Generally, people with higher SES tend to have better health than that of lower SES (Whitehall Study). That is health status is directly related to social status. This fact is referred to as the social gradient in health ( Kosteniuk and Dickinson, 2003). Since health inequalities are evident despite significant improvement in overall health of the populace, it has become the pivotal agenda in the health policy planning and management. Social Gradient in Health The social gradient in heath refers to the fact that inequalities in population health status are related to inequalities in social status (Kosteniuk and Dickinson, 2003).The poorest of the poor, around the world, have the worst health. Within countries, the evidence shows that in general the lower an individuals socioeconomic position the worse their health. There is a social gradient in health that runs from top to bottom of the socioeconomic spectrum. This is a global phenomenon, seen in low, middle and high income countries. The social gradient in health means that health inequities affect everyone. Health inequities, in particular, are avoidable inequalities in health between groups of people within countries and between countries. These inequities arise from inequalities within and between societies (WHO). Below are some examples of health inequities between and within countries extracted from WHO: the infant mortality rate (the risk of a baby dying between birth and one year of age) is 2 per 1000 live births in Iceland and over 120 per 1000 live births in Mozambique; the lifetime risk of maternal death during or shortly after pregnancy is only 1 in 17 400 in Sweden but it is 1 in 8 in Afghanistan. Examples of health inequities within countries: in Bolivia, babies born to women with no education have infant mortality greater than 100 per 1000 live births, while the infant mortality rate of babies born to mothers with at least secondary education is under 40 per 1000; life expectancy at birth among indigenous Australians is substantially lower (59.4 for males and 64.8 for females) than that of non-indigenous Australians (76.6 and 82.0, respectively); life expectancy at birth for men in the Calton neighbourhood of Glasgow is 54 years, 28 years less than that of men in Lenzie, a few kilometres away; the prevalence of long-term disabilities among European men aged 80+ years is 58.8% among the lower educated versus 40.2% among the higher educated. Measurement of Social Gradient SES is generally categorized based on income, academic qualification, social position, occupation, etc. Each of these components is very associated with themselves. For example, better education tends to lead better job which again associated with better income. In UK, two classifications exist. The Registrar-Generals Social Classes were introduced in 1913 and were renamed in 1990 as Social Class based on Occupation. The classes are: Professional occupations (Class I), Managerial and technical occupations (Class II), Skilled non-manual occupations (Class IIIN), Skilled manual occupations (Class IIIM), Partly-skilled occupations (Class IV), and Unskilled occupations (Class V). Office for National Statistics on the other hand classified social classes into eight categories. Table 1 depicts this classification. Table 1: Social classification of the Office for National Statistics Class Description 1 Higher managerial, administrative and professional occupations 1.1Â  Large employers and higher managerial and administrative occupations 1.2Â  Higher professional occupations 2 Lower managerial, administrative and professional occupations 3 Intermediate occupations 4 Small employers and own account workers 5 Lower supervisory and technical occupations 6 Semi-routine occupations 7 Routine occupations 8 Never worked and long-term unemployed Based on the two above social classification outcome variables (i.e., mortality and life expectancy) are analyzed. Results showed that those who belong to the upper social class tend to have better health in terms of less mortality rate and higher life expectancy than that of the lower class inhabitants. That is health status follows a social gradient. Current Scenario: UK The figure 1 below depicts differences in male life expectancy within a small area in London. Travelling from Westminster, every two tube stops represent one year of life expectancy lost. C:UsersazharDocumentsAcademicTheories Perspective of HPliteraturevital referencesD-Tube Map on LE 2004-08.jpg Although life expectancy has increased in all London boroughs since 2000, there has been a widening in the gap between the boroughs with the highest and the lowest life expectancy. In 1999-2001, this gap was 5.4 years for men and 4.2 years for women. In 2006-2008, the gap had increased to 9.2 years for men and 8.5 years for women (ONS data sources). Regarding different social class mortality rate also varies significantly. From the data of the figure 2, we can see that mortality rate per 100,000 people increased to almost double from class I to class VII. This is a graph showing age-standardised mortality rate by NS-SEC: men aged 25-64, England and Wales 2001-03Figure 2: Age-standardised mortality rate by NS-SEC: men aged 25-64, England and Wales 2001-03 Explanations for Inequalities In order to explain why these inequalities exist, a number of explanations have been offered. These are briefly explained below: Artefact The relationship between social class and health is probably an artefact of measurement systems used to determine social class as well as health status. Mortality ratios calculated on basis of number of deaths per social class divided by number from each class determined by census returns may be inaccurate reporting of social class. However, this explanation can be questioned in way that inequalities have been demonstrated using a number of different systems of measurement of social class. For example, occupation, property ownership, educational status and access to social resources. Nonetheless, still there is room for improvement in the measurement system by which classification and health status are determined. Downward drift (Darwinian selection) Based on the Darwins assumption, this explanation suggests that the illness will slide down the social class while the healthier people will have a greater chance of social advancement. However, the fact that many health problems only seen in adulthood, often once career choices have been made and social class has been determined. Now, if illness causes downward shift then the explanation of healthy rise class is less likely be true. Cultural explanations Health damaging behaviours are differentially distributed across social classes and contribute to observed gradients. This suggests that the lower social classes prefer less healthy lifestyles, eat more fatty foods, smoke more and exercise less than the middle and upper classes. Using the Canadian National Population Health (NPH) Survey (1994-1995) data of 7720 men and 9269 women 15 to over 80 years of age, (Kosteniuk and Dickinson, 2003) found higher household income, being retired, and aging are associated with better physical health and lower mental distress when accounting for their role in lowering stressor levels and bolstering control, self-esteem, social support, and social involvement. This evidence can partly be of supportive with the cultural explanations. However, more investigation is needed why this variation in behaviour of different social class. The material explanation Physical and psychosocial features associated with the class structure influence health and contribute to observed gradients. This indicates that poverty, poor housing conditions, lack of resources in health and educational provision as well as higher risk occupations for the poor determines the gradient in health. No doubt poverty impacts negatively in the health outcomes. However, only improving materialistic access might not lead better health and less social gradient. Consider the example of Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. Having around double income per person than that of Bangladesh in last decade, India and Pakistan left behind in almost all the health indicators (see Figure 3). Life expectancy at birth increase for Bangladesh is 17% while the figures for India and Pakistan are 12% and 6.56% respectively. In case of infant (age Figure 3: Health and income status of Bangladesh, India Pakistan from 1990 to 2011 (extracted from The Economist, 3rd November 2012) Social class is a complex construct that may involve status, wealth, culture, background and employment. It would therefore be naive to look for a simple causal relationship between class and ill health. Each individual will experience a number of different influences on their health, some of which also come under the umbrella of social class. Actions to combat social gradient in health Marmots review (2010) noted The implications of the social gradient in health are profound. It is tempting to focus limited resources on those in most need. Although social gradients in health affecting almost everyone, interventions however are very crucial for people in need most. But so far the policy, programmes and interventions aiming to reduce social gradient in health mounted a lot and itself create problems for the root level personnel. A report from the Audit Commission says there has been too much policy and accompanying guidance issued by central government for people working in the field to keep up with. It is also critical that trusts and local authorities have often faced conflicting demands from central government and calls for a more consistent and lasting set of policy statements to aid implementation on the ground. We are unlikely to be able to eliminate the social gradient in health completely, but it is possible to have a shallower social gradient in health and wellbeing than is currently the case for England. This is evidenced by the fact that there is a steeper socioeconomic gradient in health in some regions than in others, as shown in Figure 2. To reduce the steepness of the social gradient in health, actions must be universal, but with a scale and intensity that is proportionate to the level of disadvantage. We call this proportionate universalism. Greater intensity of action is likely to be needed for those with greater social and economic disadvantage, but focusing solely on the most disadvantaged will not reduce the health gradient, and will only tackle a small part of the problem. Potential area of intervention: Unhealthy behaviour Potential target group: group at in risk Conclusion Unhealthy behaviour Smoking Poor Diet Less physical activity Alcoholism Determinants of health In todays debates, the determinants of health include all the major non-genetic and non-biological influences on health. The term therefore covers individual risk factors, such as smoking, and what are often called wider determinants (Hilary Graham* and Michael P Kelly, Health inequalities: concepts, frameworks and policy) Smoking is responsible for one in six deaths in the UK. It is overall the one area where behavioural change would make the greatest impact on health inequalities. A clear divide remains in smoking levels between manual and non-manual groups, and there are also significant differences between different ethnicities and genders. Over 40% of Bangladeshi men smoke, compared to around 5% of Bangladeshi women, and more than one in four women of Irish descent are smokers. Smoking is the largest recognised cause of premature death and disability, and is responsible for about one in six deaths (over 100,000 in total) every year in the UK. Smoking prevalence has fallen dramatically in the most affluent sectors of society over the past 30 years, but much less so among the most disadvantaged. Women who smoke during pregnancy are more likely to have babies born prematurely, twice as likely to have low birth weight babies and up to three times more likely to die from sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI). Low birth weight babies experience increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Long-term smokers bear the heaviest burden of death and disease related to their smoking and is disproportionately drawn from lower socio-economic groups. Smokers in poorer social groups tend to have started smoking at an earlier age: 31% of smokers in managerial and professional households started before they were 16, compared with 45% of those in routine and manual households. Obesity and its risks are not experienced equally across society, in some cases this is related to particular behaviours. There is evidence that people whose ethnic background is Pakistani or Bangladeshi are much less likely to engage in high levels of physical exercise. There are marked differences in satisfaction with primary care services. People from black and minority ethnic groups report significantly worse access than white British people. Performance on access is worst for people from Pakistani and Bangladeshi backgrounds: their satisfaction with their level of access is 10-20 percentage points below that reported by people from white British backgrounds. It is clear that more needs to be done to address the needs of people with disabilities. Compared with people without disabilities, they are more likely to live in poverty, less likely to have educational qualifications, more likely to be economically inactive, more likely to experience problems with hate crime or harassment, and more likely to experience problems with housing and transport. These correlations appear to work in both directions: people are also more likely to become disabled if they have a low income, are out of work or have low educational qualifications. Stroke is the single largest cause of disability in England.1 Approximately half of those who survive a stroke will be left with long-term disability problems six months afterwards and will be dependent on others. People with disabilities often experience multiple forms of labour market disadvantage: more than 40% of people with disabilities are low-skilled; around 25% of those of working age are over 50; and around 10% are from black and minority ethnic groups. One study2 has estimated that people with learning disabilities or long-term mental health problems are 58% more likely to die before age 50 than non-disabled people. And studies of psychiatric patients in hospitals show that up to 70% smoke. Access to care services has been reported as an issue. Around a quarter (24%) of deaf or hearing-impaired people miss care appointments, and 19% miss more than five appointments, because of poor communication. Two-fifths (40%) of visually impaired people believe that their GPs are not fully aware of their needs, rising to 60% for other surgery staff. Disabled people are also four times more likely than the general population to find their dentists surgery inaccessible. Stigma and shame are barriers to the engagement and employment of people with mental illness. Negative media images add to this discrimination. Only 21% of people with long-term mental illness are employed, the lowest proportion of any disabled group. People with severe mental illness are 1.5 times more likely to die prematurely than others, often from preventable causes, and they are also less likely to access routine health checks. There are also differences in alcohol related deaths. There are now around 23,260 deaths related to alcohol every year in England. Every man dying of alcohol-related causes loses on average 21 years of life, and every woman loses 15 years. The prevalence of disability increases rapidly with age. Approximately 75% of men and women aged 85 and over are disabled. Alcohol is a particular problem in the mid years. Around 26% of adults in England are drinking at hazardous, harmful or dependent levels. The largest increase in the number of NHS alcohol-related hospital admissions is in the 35-49 age group. These include admissions where alcoholic liver disease, the toxic effect of alcohol or mental and behavioural disorder due to alcohol are identified as the primary or secondary diagnosis. The social pattern of problem drinking is complex, but more disadvantaged communities have higher levels of mortality, hospital admission, crime, absence from work, school exclusions, teenage pregnancy and road traffic accidents due to alcohol consumption. Within localities, the most disadvantaged individuals typically unemployed, low-income older smokers have 4 to 15 times greater alcohol-specific mortality and 4 to 10 times greater alcohol-specific admission to hospital than the most affluent. Alcohol has a serious effect on behaviour and relationships in the home, affecting the mental health and behaviour of children of alcohol-misusing parents.15 Furthermore, harmful drinking is linked to psychiatric morbidity including depression, and around a third of incidents of domestic violence are linked to alcohol misuse. Around one million children live in families where at least one parent misuses alcohol, and by the age of 15 young people in families with a parent who drinks at harmful levels have rates of psychiatric disorder that are between 2.2 and 3.9 times higher than those of other young people.16 Since the mid-1990s, newly diagnosed cases of HIV have been increasing. Increased testing will have contributed in part to this, and also enables earlier intervention. Men who have sex with men continue to be disproportionately affected. By 2006, men having sex with men accounted for up to three-quarters of UK-acquired HIV infections, and they remain the behavioural group at greatest risk of acquiring HIV in the UK. An estimated 31% of men having sex with men aged 15-59 were unaware of their infection in 2006. Among HIV-infected men having sex with men, diagnosed late are 14 times more likely to die within one year of diagnosis than those diagnosedearlier.17

Friday, September 20, 2019

The Cuckoos Egg: Cliffs Persistence Essays -- essays research papers

The Cuckoo's Egg: Cliff's Persistence By Clifford Stoll "The Cuckoo's Egg" is a story of persistence, love for one's work and is just plain funny! The story starts out with Clifford Stoll being "recycled" to a computer analyst/webmaster. Cliff, as he is affectionately called, is a long-haired ex-hippie that works at Lawrence Berkeley Lab. He originally was an astronomer, but since his grant wore out, he became a mainframe master. He was glad that instead of throwing him out into the unemployment office, the Lab recycled their people and downstairs he went, to the computer lab. A few days after he becomes the master of the mainframe, his colleague, Wayne Graves, asks him to figure out a 75cent glitch that is in the accounting system. It turns out that a computer guru, "Seventek" seems to be in town. None of his closest friends know that. The Lab becomes suspicious that it might be a hacker. To fill you in who Seventek is, he is a computer guru that created a number of programs for the Berkeley UNIX system. At the time, he was in England far from computers and civilization. The crew does not what to believe that it would be Seventek, so they start to look what the impostor is doing. Cliff hooks up a few computers to the line that comes from the Tymnet. Tymnet is a series of fiber-optic cables that run from a major city to another major city. So if you were in LA and wanted to hook up to a computer in the Big Apple you could call long distance, have a lot of interference from other callers and have a slow connection, or you could sign-up to Tymnet and dial locally, hop onthe optic cable and cruise at a T-3 line. The lab had only five Tymnet lines so Cliff could easily monitor every one with five computers, teletypes, and five printers. That was the difficult part, where to get all that equipment. At graduate school they taught Cliff to improvise. It was a Friday, and not many people come to work on Saturday. Since it was easier to make up an excuse than to beg for anything, he "borrowed" everything he needed. Then programmed his computer to beep twice when someone logged on from the Tymnet lines. The thing is, since he was sleeping under his desk, he would gouge his head on the desk drawer. Also, many people like to check their E-mail very late at night, so not to get interference. Because of that his terminal bee... ...the FBI knew the number, they wouldn't tell him who the predator was. For the next few days, Clifford expected to get a call from the Germans saying, "You can close up your system, we have him at the police station now." That didn't happen. He got word, though, that there was a search of his home, and they recovered printouts, computer back-up tapes, and disks, and diskettes. That was enough evidence to lock him up for a few years. Then one day, they caught him in the act. That was enough, he was in the slammer awaiting trail. Clifford's adventure was over, he caught his hacker, and was engaged to Martha. They decided to get married after all. He returned to being an astronomer, and not a computer wizard. Though many people though of him as a wizard, he himself though that what he did was a discovery that he stumbled on. From a 75cent accounting mishap to Tymnet to Virginia, to Germany. What a trace! At the end of the story, poor Cliff was sobbing because he grew up!! L To him that was a disaster, but the wedding coming up, and his life officially beginning, he forgot it soon. Now he lives in Cambridge with his wife, Martha, and three cats that he pretends to dislike.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Baja Taco :: essays research papers

â€Å"Baja Fresh & Taco Bell† In today’s increasingly competitive marketplace businesses must be very creative in their marketing strategies in order to attract as much business possible. Companies spend a tremendous amount of their budget on advertising, soliciting, marketing and selling their products and / or services. Businesses that aren’t creative don’t appear to succeed as much as those that produce good marketing campaigns. Fast food restaurants are one of the most recognized businesses. It appears that at just about every major intersection you’ll find some sort of fast food establishment. Which one do you select? Why did you select it? Is their food good? Was it because you found their marketing approach â€Å"funny†? Are your funds limited? There are multitudes of reasons why consumers solicit a particular business. I analyzed two fast food restaurants; one is an established major fast food provider, Taco Bell, the other restaurant is also a fast food provider, however, relatively new in the industry, Baja Fresh. Taco Bell has literally become a household product throughout much America. The marketing campaign Taco Bell initiate states that half of the American population sees a Taco Bell commercial at least once a week. Their most recent marketing slogan is a talking Chihuahua that speaks Spanish. One of his more well known punch lines is â€Å"Yo quiero Taco Bell!† Taco Bell restaurants serve Mexican fast food. They are the largest Mexican fast food restaurant chain in America. Taco Bell does not consider itself to be fast food, they consider themselves to be quick-serve Mexican style restaurants. Taco Bell focuses a great amount of their marketing strategies towards the younger age group. They are usually marketing their products around â€Å"blockbuster† movies or popular action figures, and will usually offer some sort of marketing token with many of their meals. The food at Taco Bell is priced relatively inexpensive; however, the quality is typical of a fast food restaurant; you get what you pay for. Taco Bell is constantly producing new food items in order to attract more customers. Competition is strong and dynamic in most markets. So it is essential for a firm to keep developing new products-as well as modifying its current products-to meet changing customers needs and competitors’ actions (Perreault, 281). Taco Bell continually is experimenting with new food product lines. Taco Bell is a part of the Tricon Global Restaurants Group; one of the largest restaurant chains in the world.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

The Argument for Celibacy Essay -- Argumentative Persuasive Argument E

The Argument for Celibacy    How could someone explain America’s loosening view of sexual intercourse over recent decades? Have our moral standards changed so much that they now accept or even encourage frequent sex? Is it just a method of rebellion as people attempt to fight conservative societal views? Perhaps we just wish to fight those who instill inhibitive ideas on us, and our forms of freedom – in this case, that of our bodies. Has American media’s desire for revenue and profit caused an increased sway towards what was previously deemed inappropriate? Thomas Jefferson even once said that â€Å"man is an imitative animal†. Is America just experiencing a spontaneous hormone rush? Is it possible for a society to experience its own version of puberty? Or has America just always been horny and never shown it? After all, the 70-year-old chick from The Wedding Singer screwed the modern equivalent of 200 men before she got married, didn’t she? One can speculate on these ideas, probably others as well, and not really get anywhere. They’ve all contributed to modern attitudes towards sex. But beneath all the sexual innuendos of American entertainment, the social standards of acceptance based on sexual practices, and all of the Saturday night hoopla over who’s going to get laid first and how many beers it will take, there is a subtle current of those who look in the other direction. Imagine this – some people are actually happy without getting any. You can reread that last sentence if you have to. That’s why it’s there. Not all people consider it a priority to do push-ups the hard way every weekend. In fact, some consider it a priority not to. These people are celibates, and they’re not ashamed to admit it. They’re proud... ...any man-made laws, there is a strong value in preserving one’s virginity until marriage. But again, in our country, adhering to these principles is a matter of choice. Most choose not to, and find many forms of sex to be part of our culture, and completely acceptable to engage in. Some do not view it as such. While the celibate may not make his virginal state well-known, the values that influence its holding remain true and steadfast in his life, regardless of cultural and social change. Celibates are often ridiculed for not following societal views or conforming to popular culture. Anyone can argue as to whether or not these aspects of life are acceptable, but next time you think of a celibate in a ridiculing manner, ask yourself if you would have the courage and the integrity of one. Then try ridiculing. It could prove much harder than getting someone in the sack.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Greed Through the Power of Corruption

10 December 2011 Greed through the Power of Corruption Greed is indescribable; to want everything and anything, to never be satisfied until it consumes the world. Of all the traits that one possesses, greed is said to be the most influential of them all. Through the course of George Orwell’s popular satire, Animal Farm, traits of greed and selfishness can be picked up chapter by chapter. These traits that Orwell uses to describe the actions of the characters can be comparable to the modern era where our society is ridden with greed and selfishness for different desires. Animal Farm and the society of North Korea are consumed and impacted by greed and selfishness through unequal rights, ruthless oppression, and lack of a unified government. Throughout the course of Animal Farm, unequal rights are traced through the building of the windmill, to the harvest for food. Through the harsh summer harvest, Napoleon announced â€Å"Any Animal who absented himself from it would have his rations reduced in half† (59). The pigs and dogs were the only ones that did not have to work, ultimately causing the breakup of the equal rights idea Old Major stressed about. Napoleon and the pigs were manipulating the animals and abusing their authority to benefit themselves and the progress of the harvest, regardless of the effect it would have on the other animals. Despite the Old Major’s philosophy of equal rights, the pigs went on to abuse the other animals, further showing signs of their greedy nature. A comparable quote such as the one above can strongly relate to North Korea’s human rights and how the low working class has little to no basic rights. Much like how the rations of the animals would be reduced, many North Koreans also faced food shortages due to the government giving most of the food to the soldiers. The pig and dog’s selfishness through the progress of Animal Farm causes them to diminish the dream Old Major once dreamed of; a perfect society where everyone is equal. Many years after the rebellion, Benjamin â€Å"consented to break his rule and he read out to her what was written on the wall. There was nothing there now except a single commandment. It ran: All animals are equal but some animals are more equal than others† (134). Not only does this prove that the pigs were manipulating the commandments and altering the rules, it clearly shows the progress of the pigs selfishness to make them superior over the general population. They used this commandment to their advantage to justify their actions and superiority against the other animals. Similarly, in North Korea, women have no set of rights at all and are subject to be submissive to their male counterparts. North Korean males are subjected to be submissive as well to those of higher social status such as a government official or someone with more money than them. These depictions of no Human Rights help tell the story of how the higher classes’ greed caused the general population to be stripped of their most basic rights. Throughout the history of Animal Farm, ruthless oppression was used to detain anyone that opposed the government. Harsh punishments were under way when, â€Å"Napoleon acted swiftly and ruthlessly. He ordered the hens’ rations to be stopped, and decreed that any animal giving so much as a grain of corn to a hen should be punished by death† (76). Napoleon and the pigs’ tolerance to rebellion are so strict, that death sentences are held without facing a court or trial. This is a clear depiction on how Napoleon and the pigs are selfish for power where they will take it to the point to death penalties. It shows how the pigs are not afraid to show their wrath and how they will forcefully deal with it, even if it is one of their own comrades. It also shows how manipulation is involved and how Napoleon is installing fear into the minds of the animals. This relates to North Koreas oppression on its citizens and how anyone convicted of any small crime can be dealt with harsh punishments. For example, anyone that is caught listening to an outside radio broadcast can be sentenced to capital punishment. With the executions of the animals made public, â€Å"They were all slain on the spot. And so the tale of confessions and executions went on, until there was a pile of corpses lying before Napoleons feet and the air was heavy with the smell of blood†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (54). Napoleons greed for being on top forces him to detain anyone that is against him through the public executions. Because of his desire to stay on top of the chain of command, Napoleon would not hesitate to use his power to rout any sort of insurrection or even a small action that might seem to question his authority. Similar to the statements above, manipulation is also a key factor in his ruthless terror. He manipulates the animal’s mind in thinking that he is the true leader and enforces his place as the leader of Animal Farm. His greed for authority can be seen as a sort of an obsession which in turn increases the abuse of power to do whatever it takes to continue to be in power. This event greatly relates to the public executions in North Korea and how the government tries to institutionalize the fear of the punishment of crimes and rebellions. By instilling fear into the people, the government can then go on to commit whatever kinds of immoral deeds they desire without fear of protest from the people. Furthermore, ruthless oppression was the main driving force of the pig’s greed for power. With Animal Farm turning into a totalitarianism government, there were great deals of corruption throughout the years. Another unforgiving winter season hit the animals hard â€Å"and food was even shorter. Once again all rations were reduced, except those of the pigs and the dogs. †(46). While many of the animals were starved during the cold winter, the pigs and the dogs were able to enjoy the same amount of food, further supporting the notion that the government is riddled with corruption. Likewise, in North Korea, many government officials order assassinations or kidnappings of people that are against their rule. With some difficulty, Muriel spelt out â€Å"no animal shall sleep in a bed with sheets (66). With Squealer defending his opinions, he stated, â€Å"you have heard then, comrades he said that we pigs now sleep in beds of the farmhouse? †(66). Firstly, this shows the pigs selfishness towards the animals and how they don’t even care about the treatment they receive. More over it shows corruption in a way where the leaders are living a better life compared to the animals because of their current position in leadership. North Koreans can relate to this because there is corruption where positions in government may give you access to better rights than the general population. Over the different actions of the pigs and dogs, the corrupted government in which they rule caused them to be a step ahead of everyone else. During the course of the novel, many discussions are made that can be related to greed and selfishness. Examples of greed and selfishness impact on Animal Farm can be related to the actions of North Korea and how it affects them in the modern world. Napoleon caused many troubles throughout his service in Animal Farm and many of these troubles can be traced back to his selfishness and greed for power. Greed’s impact has caused many unlawful events in the book, which can also be found in North Korea. Ruthless oppression, unequal rights, and corrupt government are only a handful of what impact greed and selfishness had in Animal Farm.